Portugal Wildlife

Guide to the Flowers of an Alentejano Wildlife Reserve

All Photographs were taken by the website author on the reserve unless otherwise stated.

Species Notes Photographs Photographs Photographs

Moroccan Garlic

Allium massaessylum

Alho de marrocos; Alho bravo
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

 

Leaves and Stem.

 

Scarlet Pimpernel

Anagallis arvensis

Morrião dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

The common Red form of Scarlet Pimpernel.

 

 

Rarer Blue form.

Red and blue forms growing together.

Blue form.

Daisy-leaved Toadflax

Anarrhinum bellidifolium

Samacalo
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

Undulate Alkanet

Anchusa undulata
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

 

Andryala

Andryala integrifolia

Tripa de ovelha
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

Mouse Plant

Arisarum simorrhinum

Candeias
Peak Flowering Period: October to February

 

Giant Reed

Arundo donax

Cana
Invasive Alien. The status of this plant in the reserve is under consideration and the plants may be removed if they are thought to be a threat. Peak Flowering Period: August to October

The Giant reed is an exotic species that has been introduced to Portugal.

Common Asphodel

Asphodelus aestivus

Abrótea de verão
Peak Flowering Period: March to August

 

 

Mediterranean Linseed

Bellardia trixago

Flor de ouro
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

Mediterranean Linseed is a semi-parasitic plant. It can obtain water nutrients from the roots of other species of plant, especially various grasses. As it is a green plant with chlorophyll, it is also able to make its own food using photosynthesis. It is a member of the broomrape family.

 

 

Large Quaking Grass

Briza maxima

Bole bole maior
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Field Marigold

Calendula arvensis

Erva vaqueira
Peak Flowering Period: November to April

Field Marigold growing on top of Windmill Ruin.

 

 

 

 

Portuguese Bellflower

Campanula lusitanica

Campainhas
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

 

 

 

Rampion Bellflower

Campanula rapunculus

Campainhas rabanete; Campânula
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

Slender Thistle

Carduus tenuiflorus

Cardo azul
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Racemose Carline Thistle

Carlina racemosa

Cardo amarelo anual
Peak Flowering Period: June to September

Dusky Dogfennel

Chamaemelum fuscatum

Margaça de inverno
Peak Flowering Period: November to April

 

 

Moroccan Chamomile

Chamaemelum mixtum

Margaça
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Crown Daisy

Chrysanthemum coronarium

Pampilho, Palmequer
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

 

Corn Marigold

Chrysanthemum segetum

Pampilho das searas
Peak Flowering Period: March to April

This is an exotic species that was introduced to Portugal.

 

 

 

 

 

Crispus Rockrose

Cistus crispus

Roselha
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

Gum Cistus

Cistus ladanifer

Esteva
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

 

Sage-leaved Cistus

Cistus salviifolius

Saganho mouro
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

Flower buds and flowers.

Cardoon

Cynara cardunculus

Alcachofra
Peak Flowering Period: May to July

Developing flower spikes of this thistle species.

Developing flower spikes.

Dessicated flower head (fallen horizontal).

Wild Carrot

Daucus carota

Cenoura brava
Peak Flowering Period: May to September

Compound umbel.

Flower spike before flowers have opened.

 

Brown Bluebell

Dipcadi serotinum

Jacinto da tarde
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

 

 

Purple Viper's Bugloss

Echium plantagineum

Soagem
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Longbeak Stork's-bill

Erodium botrys

Agulheta
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

Showing characteristically lobed, but not pinnately lobed, leaves.

Showing very long fruits - the "Stork's Bills".

Showing flowers and Stork's bill-shaped seed heads.

Common Stork's-bill

Erodium cicutarium

Bico de Cegonha
Peak Flowering Period: February to April

Showing characteristically pinnate leaves.

 

Field Fumitory

Fumaria agraria

Fumária dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: December to June

 

 

 

 

Purple Milk Thistle

Galactites tomentosus

Cardo
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Dove's-Foot Cranes-Bill

Geranium molle

Bico de pomba
Peak Flowering Period: January to June

 

 

Fruits - "Crane's Bills".

Field Gladiolus

Gladiolus italicus

Acoro falso

Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

Barbary Nut

Gynandriris sisyrhynchium

Pé de brurro
Peak Flowering Period: February to April

 

 

 

 

Kidney Vetch sp.

Hymenocarpos lotoides

Patinha de osga, Albaida
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Coral-necklace

Illecebrum verticillatum

Aranhões; Erva sanguinha
 

Sheep's bit scabious

Jasione Montana

Botão azul
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

 

 

Red Vetchling

Lathyrus cicera

Araca; Chícharo branco
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

French lavender

Lavandula stoechas

Cabeçuda; Rosmaninho; Arçã
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

 

 

Annual Toadflax

Linaria incarnata
Peak Flowering Period: (February) March to June

 

 

 

Ballast Toadflax

Linaria spartea

Ansarina dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: February to July

Pale Flax

Linum bienne

Linho bravo; Linho de inverno
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

Small-flowered Birdsfoot Trefoil

Lotus parviflorus

Loto de flor miúda
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

 

 

 

 

 

Narrow-leaved Lupin

Lupinus angustifolius

Tremoço bravo
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

Characteristically narrow leaves.

Seed pods.

 

 

Very upright growth habit.

 

 

Yellow Lupin

Lupinus luteus

Tremoceiro amarelo
Native plant. But also planted to provide a green manure for our Olive Grove. Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Yellow Lupin plants sown as seeds in our Olive Grove to provide a green manure. Lupins have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules, a trait typical to pea family species.

 

 

 

 

Yellow Lupins in flower in the Olive Grove.

 

 

Hairy Lupin

Lupinus micranthus

Tremoço hirsuto

Peak Flowering Period: March to May

Spanish Mallow

Malva hispanica

Malva de espanha
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

Least Mallow

Malva parviflora

Malva de flor pequena
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

The flowers are very small compared to the rather vigorous foliage.

Fruit.

 

 

 

Leaf.

 

 

Pennyroyal

Mentha pulegium

Hortelâ pimenta mansa
Peak Flowering Period: June to September

Woody Sandwort

Minuartia geniculata
Peak Flowering Period: March to ?

 

 

Pale Lesser Snapdragon

Misopates calycinum
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Lesser Snapdragon

Misopates orontium

Focinho de rato
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

 

Tassel Grape Hyacinth

Muscari comosum

Jacinto das searas; Cebolinho de flor azul
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

Hoop Petticoat Narcissus

Narcissus bulbocodium

Campainhas amarelas
Peak Flowering Period: January to April

Photo showing the Narcissus growing in winterbourne stream.

 

 

 

 

 

Oleander

Nerium oleander

Loendro ; Cevadilha
Peak Flowering Period: February to March and May to August

 

Hemlock Water-Dropwort

Oenanthe crocata

Embude, Prego do diabo
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

Luxuriant and vigorous leaf growth.

 

 

This species of umbellifer is water-loving and lives in our river.

 

Early Purple Orchid

Orchis mascula olbiensis

Satirião macho
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

Basal leaves.

Star of Bethlehem

Ornithogalum orthophyllum

Leite de galinha
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

Star of Bethlehem flowers with a Crab Spider.

Common Broomrape

Orobanche minor

Orobanca

Peak Flowering Period: April to June

The Broomrapes are parasitic on the roots of other plants. This species usually attacks legumes, composites and umbellifers.

 

 

 

 

This Common broomrape is likely to be parasitising the roots of the yellow legume seen in the photograph.

 

Bermuda Buttercup

Oxalis pes-caprae

Trevo azedo
Peak Flowering Period: November to April

This is an exotic species that was introduced to Portugal.

 

Long-headed Poppy

Papaver dubium

Papoila longa
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Long-headed Poppies are orange in colour.

 

 

Rough Poppy

Papaver hybridum

Papoila ouricada; Papoila peluda
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

Rough Poppies have much smaller flowers than Long-headed Poppies and they are a deep red colour.

 

Yellow Bartsia

Parentucellia viscosa 

Erva peganhenta
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

Yellow Bartsia is a semi-parasitic plant. It has root-like organs known as haustoria that it uses to obtain nutrients from the roots of other species of plant. As it is a green plant with chlorophyll, it is also able to make its own food using photosynthesis. It is a member of the broomrape family.

 

 

Group of Yellow bartsia plants.

Meadow drift including Yellow Bartsia.

 

Silver Paronychia

Paronychia argentea

Erva prata; Erva dos unheiros
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

Buck's-Horn Plantain

Plantago coronopus

Diabelha
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hare's Foot Plantain

Plantago lagopus

Orelha de lebre
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Leaves of Hare's Foot Plantain.

Ribwort Plantain

Plantago lanceolate

Corrijó, Língua de ovelha
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Jersey Cudweed

Pseudognaphalium luteo-album

Perpétua brava

Peak Flowering Period: February to October

 

Jersey Buttercup

Ranunculus paludosus

Ranúnculo dos charcos
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

 

 

Stream Water-Crowfoot

Ranunculus penicillatus

 

Aquatic Plant. Peak Flowering Period: February to May

This aquatic plant has submerged and floating leaves. This photograph shows the long, flowing submerged leaves (when water level is higher).

This photo shows both the floating leaves at the surface and the long, filamentous submerged leaves under the water.

 

 

 

The Stream Water-Crowfoot is a member of the Buttercup family.

 

 

 

 

 

Wild Radish

Raphanus raphanistrum

Saramago
Peak Flowering Period: January to June

 

Weld or Dyer's Rocket

Reseda luteola

Lírio dos tintureiros
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Sheep's Sorrel

Rumex acetosella

Erva azeda
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

The basal lobes of the leaves characteristically turn upwards.

 

 

Red Dock

Rumex bucephalophorus

Catacuzes
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

 

 

 

 

Northern Dock

Rumex longifolius

Peak Flowering Period: ??? May

A tall plant - up to 120cm (4 feet).

 

 

It is presumed that the Northern Dock is native to Portugal.

Small Burnet

Sanguisorba verrucosa

Pimpinela menor
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Sweet Scabious

Scabiosa atropurpurea

Saudades roxas; Suspiros; Suspiros roxos
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

 

 

 

Scorpion Plant

Scorpiurus muricatus

Cornilhão pequeno
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Note coiled seed pod on centre left of photograph.

 

 

Note coiled seed pod on bottom right of photograph - which supposedly resembles a caterpillar.

 

Caterpillar Plant

Scorpiurus vermiculatus

Cornilhão esponjoso
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Common Ragwort

Senecio jacobaea

Erva de são tiago; Tasna
Peak Flowering Period: May to September

Groundsel

Senecio vulgaris

Tasneirinha
Peak Flowering Period: December to April

 

 

Seed head of Groundsel. The seeds will be dispersed by the wind or any animals brushing past the plant.

 

Tongue Orchid

Serapias strictiflora
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

Field Madder

Sherardia arvensis

Granza dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

 

 

 

 

Mediterranean Catchfly

Silene colorata

Silene rosada
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

Small-flowered Catchfly

Silene gallica

Erva mel; Nariz de zorra
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

 

Black Nightshade

Solanum nigrum

Erva moira
Peak Flowering Period: All Year Round

 

Smooth Sow-Thistle

Sonchus tenerrimus

Serralha

Peak Flowering Period: February to August

 

 

Bee collecting pollen from Smooth Sow-Thistle flower.

 

Purple Sand Spurrey

Spergularia purpurea

Sapinho roxo
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

Field Woundwort

Stachys arvensis

Rabo de raposa
Peak Flowering Period: January to May

 

Shining Deadly Carrot

Thapsia nitida

Peak Flowering Period: April to June

 

 

Southern Deadly Carrot

Thapsia transtagana

Tápsia
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Umbrella Milkwort

Tolpis barbata

Olhos de mocho
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

Narrow-leaved Crimson Clover

Trifolium angustifolium

Trevo massaroco, Rabo de gato
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

Hare's-Foot Clover

Trifolium arvense

Pé de lebre; Trevo branco
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

 

Hop Trefoil

Trifolium campestre

Trevo amarelo
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Clustered Clover

Trifolium glomeratum

Trevo
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

 

 

 

White Clover

Trifolium repens

Trevo branco
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

Arrowleaf Clover

Trifolium vesiculosum

Peak Flowering Period: April to July

Diagnostic White 'W'-shaped marking on pointed, arrow-shaped, leaves.

 

 

This species is not Native to Portugal. It is an introduced Exotic species.

 

Spotted Rock Rose

Tuberaria guttata

Alcar

Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Spotted rock rose among variety of other flower species.

 

Lesser Bulrush

Typha angustifolia

Tábua estreita

Peak Flowering Period: April to July

Navelwort

Umbilicus rupestris

Umbigo de vénus
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Navelwort typically grows in rocks and old walls.

Sea Squill

Urginea maritima

Cebola albarrã
Peak Flowering Period: August to October

 

 

 

 

 

Purple Vetch

Vicia benghalensis

Ervilhaca vermelha

Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Common Vetch

Viciasativa

Ervilhaca mansa; Ervilhaca comum

Peak Flowering Period: February to July

 

 

Seed pod.

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Species List :

1 Moroccan Garlic Allium massaessylum Alho de marrocos; Alho bravo Native March to June
2 Scarlet Pimpernel Anagallis arvensis Morrião dos campos Native March to June
3 Daisy-leaved Toadflax Anarrhinum bellidifolium Samacalo Native April to July
4 Undulate Alkanet Anchusa undulata   Native February to May
5 Andryala Andryala integrifolia Tripa de ovelha Native April to July
6 Mouse Plant Arisarum simorrhinum Candeias Native October to February
7 Giant Reed Arundo donax Cana Exotic - Introduced August to October
8 Common Asphodel Asphodelus aestivus Abrótea de verão Native March to August
9 Mediterranean Linseed Bellardia trixago Flor de ouro Native April to June
10 Large Quaking Grass Briza maxima Bole bole maior Native March to June
11 Field Marigold Calendula arvensis Erva vaqueira Native November to April
12 Portuguese Bellflower Campanula lusitanica Campainhas   April to July
13 Rampion Bellflower Campanula rapunculus Campainhas rabanete; Campânula Native April to July
14 Slender Thistle Carduus tenuiflorus Cardo azul Native March to June
15 Racemose Carline Thistle Carlina racemosa Cardo amarelo anual Native June to September
16 Dusky Dogfennel Chamaemelum fuscatum Margaça de inverno Native December to April
17 Moroccan Chamomile Chamaemelum mixtum Margaça Native March to June
18 Crown Daisy Chrysanthemum coronarium Pampilho; Palmequer Native February to May
19 Corn Marigold Chrysanthemum segetum Pampilho das searas Exotic - Introduced March to April
20 Crispus Rockrose Cistus crispus Roselha Native April to June
21 Gum Cistus Cistus ladanifer Esteva Native March to May
22 Sage-leaved Cistus Cistus salviifolius Saganho mouro Native February to May
23 Cardoon Cynara cardunculus Alcachofra Native May to July
24 Wild Carrot Daucus carota Cenoura brava Native May to September
25 Brown Bluebell Dipcadi serotinum Jacinto da tarde Native February to May
26 Purple Viper's Bugloss Echium plantagineum Soagem Native March to June
27 Longbeak Stork's-bill Erodium botrys Agulheta Native March to May
28 Common Stork's-bill Erodium cicutarium Bico de Cegonha Native February to April
29 Field Fumitory Fumaria agraria Fumária dos campos Native December to June
30 Purple Milk Thistle Galactites tomentosus Cardo Native March to June
31 Doves-Foot Cranes-Bill Geranium molle Bico de pomba Native January to June
32 Field Gladiolus Gladiolus italicus Acoro falso Native March to May
33 Barbary Nut Gynandriris sisyrhynchium  Pé de brurro Native February to April
34 Kidney Vetch sp. Hymenocarpos lotoides Patinha de osga; Albaida Native March to June
35 Coral-necklace Illecebrum verticillatum Aranhões; Erva sanguinha Native March to September
36 Sheep's Bit Scabious Jasione montana Botão azul Native April to July
37 Red Vetchling Lathyrus cicera Araca; Chícharo branco Native March to May
38 French Lavender Lavandula stoechas Cabeçuda; Rosmaninho; Arçã Native February to June
39 Annual Toadflax Linaria incarnata   Native March to June
40 Ballast Toadflax Linaria spartea Ansarina dos campos Native February to July
41 Pale Flax Linum bienne Linho bravo; Linho de inverno Native February to June
42 Small-flowered Birdsfoot Trefoil Lotus parviflorus Loto de flor miúda Native April to June
43 Narrow-leaved Lupin Lupinus angustifolius Tremoço bravo Native February to May
44 Yellow Lupin Lupinus luteus Tremoceiro amarelo Native/Planted as green manure March to June
45 Hairy Lupin Lupinus micranthus Tremoço hirsuto Native March to May
46 Spanish Mallow Malva hispanica Malva de espanha Native April to July
47 Least Mallow Malva parviflora Malva de flor pequena Native March to June
48 Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium Hortelâ pimenta mansa Native June to September
49 Woody Sandwort Minuartia geniculata   ?? March to ?
50 Pale Lesser Snapdragon Misopates calycinum   Native March to July
51 Lesser Snapdragon Misopates orontium Focinho de rato Native March to July
52 Tassel Grape Hyacinth Muscari comosum Jacinto das searas; Cebolinho de flor azul Native March to May
53 Hoop Petticoat Narcissus Narcissus bulbocodium Campainhas amarelas Native January to April
54 Oleander Nerium oleander Loendro; Cevadilha Native February to March & May to August
55 Hemlock Water-Dropwort Oenanthe crocata Embude, Prego do diabo Native March to July
56 Early Purple Orchid Orchis mascula olbiensis Satirião macho Native March to May
57 Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum orthophyllum Leite de galinha Native February to May
58 Common Broomrape Orobanche minor Orobanca Native April to June
59 Bermuda Buttercup Oxalis pes-caprae Trevo azedo Exotic - Introduced November to April
60 Long-headed Poppy Papaver dubium Papoila longa Native March to June
61 Rough Poppy Papaver hybridum Papoila ouricada; Papoila peluda Native March to May
62 Yellow Bartsia Parentucellia viscosa Erva peganhenta Native April to June
63 Silver Paronychia Paronychia argentea Erva prata, Erva dos unheiros Native February to June
64 Buck's-Horn Plantain Plantago coronopus Diabelha Native March to July
65 Hare's Foot Plantain Plantago lagopus Orelha de lebre Native March to June
66 Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata Corrijó; Língua de ovelha Native March to July
67 Jersey Cudweed Pseudognaphalium luteo-album Perpétua brava ?? February to October
68 Jersey Buttercup Ranunculus paludosus Ranúnculo dos charcos Native February to May
69 Stream Water-Crowfoot Ranunculus penicillatus   Native February to April
70 Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum Saramago ?? January to June
71 Weld or Dyer's Rocket Reseda luteola Lírio dos tintureiros Native March to June
72 Sheep's Sorrel Rumex acetosella Erva azeda Native March to July
73 Red Dock Rumex bucephalophorus Catacuzes Native February to June
74 Northern Dock Rumex longifolius   Probably Native May
75 Small Burnet Sanguisorba verrucosa Pimpinela menor Native March to July
76 Sweet Scabious Scabiosa atropurpurea Saudades roxas; Suspiros; Suspiros roxos Native April to July
77 Scorpion Plant Scorpiurus muricatus Cornilhão pequeno Native March to June
78 Caterpillar Plant Scorpiurus vermiculatus Cornilhão esponjoso Native March to June
79 Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea Erva de são tiago; Tasna Native May to September
80 Groundsel Senecio vulgaris Tasneirinha Native December to April
81 Tongue Orchid Serapias strictiflora   Native March to May
82 Field Madder Sherardia arvensis Granza dos campos Native February to June
83 Mediterranean Catchfly Silene colorata Silene rosada Native February to May
84 Small-flowered Catchfly Silene gallica Erva mel; Nariz de zorra Native March to June
85 Black Nightshade Solanum nigrum Erva moira Native All Year Round
86 Smooth Sow-Thistle Sonchus tenerrimus Serralha Native February to August
87 Purple Sand Spurrey Spergularia purpurea Sapinho roxo Native March to July
88 Field Woundwort Stachys arvensis Rabo de raposa Native January to May
89 Shining Deadly Carrot Thapsia nitida   Native April to June
90 Villous Deadly Carrot Thapsia villosa Turbit da terra Native April to July
91 European Umbrella Milkwort Tolpis barbata Olhos de mocho Native March to July
92 Narrow-leaved Crimson Clover Trifolium angustifolium Trevo massaroco; Rabo de gato Native April to July
93 Hare's-Foot Clover Trifolium arvense Pé de lebre; Trevo branco Native March to July
94 Hop Trefoil Trifolium campestre Trevo amarelo Native March to July
95 Clustered Clover Trifolium glomeratum Trevo Native April to July
96 White Clover Trifolium repens Trevo branco Native March to July
97 Arrowleaf Clover Trifolium vesiculosum   Exotic - Introduced April to July
98 Spotted Rock Rose Tuberaria guttata Alcar Native March to June
99 Lesser Bulrush Typha angustifolia Tábua estreita Native April to July
100 Navelwort Umbilicus rupestris Umbigo de vénus Native March to July
101 Sea Squill Urginea maritima Cebola albarrã Native August to October
102 Purple Vetch Vicia benghalensis Ervilhaca vermelha Native March to June
103 Common Vetch Vicia sativa Ervilhaca mansa; Ervilhaca comum Native February to July

 

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