Portugal Wildlife

Guide to the Flowers of an Alentejano Wildlife Reserve

All Photographs were taken by the website author on the reserve unless otherwise stated.

Species Notes Photographs Photographs Photographs

Scarlet Pimpernel

Anagallis arvensis

Morrião dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

The common Red form of Scarlet Pimpeernel.

Blue form.

Red and blue forms growing together.

 

 

Rarer Blue form.

 

 

Undulate Alkanet

Anchusa undulata
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

Andryala

Andryala integrifolia

Tripa de ovelha
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

Mouse Plant

Arisarum simorrhinum

Candeias
Peak Flowering Period: October to February

 

Giant Reed

Arundo donax

Cana
Invasive Alien. The status of this plant in the reserve is under consideration and the plants may be removed if they are thought to be a threat. Peak Flowering Period: August to October

The Giant reed is an exotic species that has been introduced to Portugal.

Common Asphodel

Asphodelus aestivus

Abrótea de verão
Peak Flowering Period: March to August

 

 

Bellardia

Bellardia trixago

Flor de ouro
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

 

Large Quaking Grass

Briza maxima

Bole bole maior
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Field Marigold

Calendula arvensis

Erva vaqueira
Peak Flowering Period: November to April

 

Portuguese Bellflower

Campanula lusitanica

Campainhas
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

Slender Thistle

Carduus tenuiflorus

Cardo azul
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Dusky Dogfennel

Chamaemelum fuscatum

Margaça de inverno
Peak Flowering Period: November to April

 

 

Moroccan Chamomile

Chamaemelum mixtum

Margaça
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Crown Daisy

Chrysanthemum coronarium

Pampilho, Palmequer
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

Corn Marigold

Chrysanthemum segetum

Pampilho das searas
Peak Flowering Period: March to April

This is an exotic species that was introduced to Portugal.

 

Crispus Rockrose

Cistus crispus

Roselha
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

Gum Cistus

Cistus ladanifer

Esteva
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

 

Sage-leaved Cistus

Cistus salviifolius

Saganho mouro
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

 

Flower buds and flowers.

Cardoon

Cynara cardunculus

Alcachofra
Peak Flowering Period: May to July

Developing flower spikes of this thistle species.

Developing flower spikes.

Dessicated flower head (fallen horizontal).

Wild Carrot

Daucus carota

Cenoura brava
Peak Flowering Period: May to September

Compound umbel.

Flower spike before flowers have opened.

 

Brown Bluebell

Dipcadi serotinum

Jacinto da tarde
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

 

Purple Viper's Bugloss

Echium plantagineum

Soagem
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Longbeak Stork's-bill

Erodium botrys

Agulheta
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

Showing characteristically lobed, but not pinnately lobed, leaves.

Showing very long fruits - the "Stork's Bills".

Showing flowers and Stork's bill-shaped seed heads.

Common Stork's-bill

Erodium cicutarium

Bico de Cegonha
Peak Flowering Period: February to April

Showing characteristically pinnate leaves.

 

Field Fumitory

Fumaria agraria

Fumária dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: December to June

 

 

 

 

Purple Milk Thistle

Galactites tomentosus

Cardo
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Dove's-Foot Cranes-Bill

Geranium molle

Bico de pomba
Peak Flowering Period: January to June

 

 

Fruits - "Crane's Bills".

Field Gladiolus

Gladiolus italicus

Acoro falso

Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

Barbary Nut

Gynandriris sisyrhynchium

Pé de brurro
Peak Flowering Period: February to April

 

 

Kidney Vetch sp.

Hymenocarpos lotoides

Patinha de osga, Albaida
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

Coral-necklace

Illecebrum verticillatum

Aranhões; Erva sanguinha
 

Sheep's bit scabious

Jasione Montana

Botão azul
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

 

 

Annual Toadflax

Linaria incarnata
Peak Flowering Period: (February) March to June

 

 

 

Ballast Toadflax

Linaria spartea

Ansarina dos campos
Peak Flowering Period: February to July

Pale Flax

Linum bienne

Linho bravo; Linho de inverno
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

Narrow-leaved Lupin

Lupinus angustifolius

Tremoço bravo
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

Characteristically narrow leaves.

Very upright growth habit.

Yellow Lupin

Lupinus luteus

Tremoceiro amarelo
Native plant. But also planted to provide a green manure for our Olive Grove. Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Yellow Lupin plants sown as seeds in our Olive Grove to provide a green manure. Lupins have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules, a trait typical to pea family species.

 

 

 

 

Yellow Lupins in flower in the Olive Grove.

 

 

Hairy Lupin

Lupinus micranthus

Tremoço hirsuto

Peak Flowering Period: March to May

Spanish Mallow

Malva hispanica

Malva de espanha
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

Least Mallow

Malva parviflora

Malva de flor pequena
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

The flowers are very small compared to the rather vigorous foliage.

Fruit.

 

 

 

Leaf.

 

 

Pennyroyal

Mentha pulegium

Hortelâ pimenta mansa
Peak Flowering Period: June to September

Woody Sandwort

Minuartia geniculata
Peak Flowering Period: March to ?

 

 

Tassel Grape Hyacinth

Muscari comosum

Jacinto das searas; Cebolinho de flor azul
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

 

Hoop Petticoat Narcissus

Narcissus bulbocodium

Campainhas amarelas
Peak Flowering Period: January to April

Photo showing the Narcissus growing in winterbourne stream.

 

 

 

 

 

Oleander

Nerium oleander

Loendro ; Cevadilha
Peak Flowering Period: February to March and May to August

 

Hemlock Water-Dropwort

Oenanthe crocata

Embude, Prego do diabo
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

Luxuriant and vigorous leaf growth.

 

 

This species of umbellifer is water-loving and lives in our river.

 

Early Purple Orchid

Orchis mascula olbiensis

Satirião macho
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

 

Basal leaves.

Star of Bethlehem

Ornithogalum orthophyllum

Leite de galinha
Peak Flowering Period: February to May

Star of Bethlehem flowers with a Crab Spider.

Common Broomrape

Orobanche minor

Orobanca

Peak Flowering Period: April to June

The Broomrapes are parasitic on the roots of other plants. This species usually attacks legumes, composites and umbellifers.

 

 

 

 

This Common broomrape is likely to be parasitising the roots of the yellow legume seen in the photograph.

 

Bermuda Buttercup

Oxalis pes-caprae

Trevo azedo
Peak Flowering Period: November to April

This is an exotic species that was introduced to Portugal.

 

Long-headed Poppy

Papaver dubium

Papoila longa
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

 

Yellow Bartsia

Parentucellia viscosa 

Erva peganhenta
Peak Flowering Period: April to June

 

 

Group of Yellow bartsia plants.

Meadow drift including Yellow Bartsia.

 

Hare's Foot Plantain

Plantago lagopus

Orelha de lebre
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Leaves of Hare's Foot Plantain.

Ribwort Plantain

Plantago lanceolate

Corrijó, Língua de ovelha
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Jersey Cudweed

Pseudognaphalium luteo-album

Perpétua brava

Peak Flowering Period: February to October

 

Stream Water-Crowfoot

Ranunculus penicillatus

 

Aquatic Plant. Peak Flowering Period: February to May

This aquatic plant has submerged and floating leaves. This photograph shows the long, flowing submerged leaves (when water level is higher).

This photo shows both the floating leaves at the surface and the long, filamentous submerged leaves under the water.

 

 

 

The Stream Water-Crowfoot is a member of the Buttercup family.

 

 

 

 

 

Wild Radish

Raphanus raphanistrum

Saramago
Peak Flowering Period: January to June

 

Weld or Dyer's Rocket

Reseda luteola

Lírio dos tintureiros
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Sheep's Sorrel

Rumex acetosella

Erva azeda
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

The basal lobes of the leaves characteristically turn upwards.

 

 

Red Dock

Rumex Bucephalophorus

Catacuzes
Peak Flowering Period: February to June

 

 

 

 

Small Burnet

Sanguisorba verrucosa

Pimpinela menor
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Single-flowered Scorpiurus

Scorpiurus vermiculatus

Cornilhão esponjoso
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

Note coiled seed pod on centre left of photograph.

 

 

Note coiled seed pod on bottom right of photograph.

 

Groundsel

Senecio vulgaris

Tasneirinha
Peak Flowering Period: December to April

 

 

Seed head of Groundsel. The seeds will be dispersed by the wind or any animals brushing past the plant.

 

Tongue Orchid

Serapias strictiflora
Peak Flowering Period: March to May

 

Small-flowered Catchfly

Silene gallica

Erva mel; Nariz de zorra
Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

 

 

Black Nightshade

Solanum nigrum

Erva moira
Peak Flowering Period: All Year Round

 

Smooth Sow-Thistle

Sonchus tenerrimus

Serralha

Peak Flowering Period: February to August

Purple Sand Spurrey

Spergularia purpurea

Sapinho roxo
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

Field Woundwort

Stachys arvensis

Rabo de raposa
Peak Flowering Period: January to Mayy

 

Villous Deadly Carrot

Thapsia villosa

Turbit da terra
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

 

 

Developing Seeds.

European Umbrella Milkwort

Tolpis barbata

Olhos de mocho
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

Narrow-leaved Crimson Clover

Trifolium angustifolium

Trevo massaroco, Rabo de gato
Peak Flowering Period: April to July

White Clover

Trifolium repens

Trevo branco
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

 

 

Spotted Rock Rose

Tuberaria guttata

Alcar

Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

 

Spotted rock rose among variety of other flower species.

 

Lesser Bulrush

Typha angustifolia

Tábua estreita

Peak Flowering Period: April to July

Navelwort

Umbilicus rupestris

Umbigo de vénus
Peak Flowering Period: March to July

Navelwort typically grows in rocks and old walls.

Sea Squill

Urginea maritima

Cebola albarrã
Peak Flowering Period: August to October

 

 

 

 

 

Purple Vetch

Vicia benghalensis

Ervilhaca vermelha

Peak Flowering Period: March to June

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Species List :

1 Scarlet Pimpernel Anagallis arvensis Morrião dos campos Native March to June
2 Undulate Alkanet Anchusa undulata   Native February to May
3 Andryala Andryala integrifolia Tripa de ovelha Native April to July
4 Mouse Plant Arisarum simorrhinum Candeias Native October to February
5 Giant Reed Arundo donax Cana Exotic - Introduced August to October
6 Common Asphodel Asphodelus aestivus Abrótea de verão Native March to August
7 Bellardia Bellardia trixago Flor de ouro Native April to June
8 Large Quaking Grass Briza maxima Bole bole maior Native March to June
9 Field Marigold Calendula arvensis Erva vaqueira Native November to April
10 Portuguese Bellflower Campanula lusitanica Campainhas   April to July
11 Slender Thistle Carduus tenuiflorus Cardo azul Native March to June
12 Dusky Dogfennel Chamaemelum fuscatum Margaça de inverno Native December to April
13 Moroccan Chamomile Chamaemelum mixtum Margaça Native March to June
14 Crown Daisy Chrysanthemum coronarium Pampilho; Palmequer Native February to May
15 Corn Marigold Chrysanthemum segetum Pampilho das searas Exotic - Introduced March to April
16 Crispus Rockrose Cistus crispus Roselha Native April to June
17 Gum Cistus Cistus ladanifer Esteva Native March to May
18 Sage-leaved Cistus Cistus salviifolius Saganho mouro Native February to May
19 Cardoon Cynara cardunculus Alcachofra Native May to July
20 Wild Carrot Daucus carota Cenoura brava Native May to September
21 Brown Bluebell Dipcadi serotinum Jacinto da tarde Native February to May
22 Purple Viper's Bugloss Echium plantagineum Soagem Native March to June
23 Longbeak Stork's-bill Erodium botrys Agulheta Native March to May
24 Common Stork's-bill Erodium cicutarium Bico de Cegonha Native February to April
25 Field Fumitory Fumaria agraria Fumária dos campos Native December to June
26 Purple Milk Thistle Galactites tomentosus Cardo Native March to June
27 Doves-Foot Cranes-Bill Geranium molle Bico de pomba Native January to June
28 Field Gladiolus Gladiolus italicus Acoro falso Native March to May
29 Barbary Nut Gynandriris sisyrhynchium  Pé de brurro Native February to April
30 Kidney Vetch sp. Hymenocarpos lotoides Patinha de osga; Albaida Native March to June
31 Coral-necklace Illecebrum verticillatum Aranhões; Erva sanguinha Native March to September
32 Sheep's bit Scabious Jasione montana Botão azul Native April to July
33 Annual Toadflax Linaria incarnata   Native March to June
34 Ballast Toadflax Linaria spartea Ansarina dos campos Native February to July
35 Pale Flax Linum bienne Linho bravo; Linho de inverno Native February to June
36 Narrow-leaved Lupin Lupinus angustifolius Tremoço bravo Native February to May
37 Yellow Lupin Lupinus luteus Tremoceiro amarelo Native/Planted as green manure March to June
38 Hairy Lupin Lupinus micranthus Tremoço hirsuto Native March to May
39 Spanish Mallow Malva hispanica Malva de espanha Native April to July
40 Least Mallow Malva parviflora Malva de flor pequena Native March to June
41 Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium Hortelâ pimenta mansa Native June to September
42 Woody Sandwort Minuartia geniculata   ?? March to ?
43 Tassel Grape Hyacinth Muscari comosum Jacinto das searas; Cebolinho de flor azul Native March to May
44 Hoop Petticoat Narcissus Narcissus bulbocodium Campainhas amarelas Native January to April
45 Oleander Nerium oleander Loendro; Cevadilha Native February to March & May to August
46 Hemlock Water-Dropwort Oenanthe crocata Embude, Prego do diabo Native March to July
47 Early Purple Orchid Orchis mascula olbiensis Satirião macho Native March to May
48 Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum orthophyllum Leite de galinha Native February to May
49 Common Broomrape Orobanche minor Orobanca Native April to June
50 Bermuda Buttercup Oxalis pes-caprae Trevo azedo Exotic - Introduced November to April
51 Long-headed Poppy Papaver dubium Papoila longa Native March to June
52 Yellow Bartsia Parentucellia viscosa Erva peganhenta Native April to June
53 Hare's Foot Plantain Plantago lagopus Orelha de lebre Native March to June
54 Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata Corrijó; Língua de ovelha Native March to July
55 Jersey Cudweed Pseudognaphalium luteo-album Perpétua brava ?? February to October
56 Stream Water-Crowfoot Ranunculus penicillatus   Native February to April
57 Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum Saramago ?? January to June
58 Weld or Dyer's Rocket Reseda luteola Lírio dos tintureiros Native March to June
59 Sheep's Sorrel Rumex acetosella Erva azeda Native March to July
60 Red Dock Rumex bucephalophorus Catacuzes Native February to June
61 Small Burnet Sanguisorba verrucosa Pimpinela menor Native March to July
62 Single-flowered Scorpiurus Scorpiurus vermiculatus Cornilhão esponjoso Native March to June
63 Groundsel Senecio vulgaris Tasneirinha Native December to April
64 Tongue Orchid Serapias strictiflora   Native March to May
65 Small-flowered Catchfly Silene gallica Erva mel; Nariz de zorra Native March to June
66 Black Nightshade Solanum nigrum Erva moira Native All Year Round
67 Smooth Sow-Thistle Sonchus tenerrimus Serralha Native February to August
68 Purple Sand Spurrey Spergularia purpurea Sapinho roxo Native March to July
69 Field Woundwort Stachys arvensis Rabo de raposa Native January to May
70 Villous Deadly Carrot Thapsia villosa Turbit da terra Native April to July
71 European Umbrella Milkwort Tolpis barbata Olhos de mocho Native March to July
72 Narrow-leaved Crimson Clover Trifolium angustifolium Trevo massaroco; Rabo de gato Native April to July
73 White Clover Trifolium repens Trevo branco Native March to July
74 Spotted Rock Rose Tuberaria guttata Alcar Native March to June
75 Lesser Bulrush Typha angustifolia Tábua estreita Native April to July
76 Navelwort Umbilicus rupestris Umbigo de vénus Native March to July
77 Sea Squill Urginea maritima Cebola albarrã Native August to October
78 Purple Vetch Vicia benghalensis Ervilhaca vermelha Native March to June

 

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