Portugal Wildlife

Notes on Weather and Water Levels in a Wildlife Reserve in Baixo Alentejo

An October Rain Shower:

Short Hail Shower fell on 30th October 2018. Small hailstones and the shower only lasted for a few minutes.

Windmill Pond on 2018 09 29 (left) and a comparison photo taken on 2018 09 29 (right) showing contrast in water levels.


August 4th 2018: 42 ℃ followed by 1mm of rain in thunderstorm with gusting wind, fed by Saharan dust. The region experienced an" Iberian Plume" over the period 3rd to 5th August. An Iberian Plume is a weather phenomenon whereby hot air from the Sahara moves into Iberia and then further North into Europe and the UK. These conditions can lead to near record-breaking temperatures as well as thunderstorms.

The rainfall from 1st January 2018 to 12th April 2018 (388.5mm) was more than all the rainfall in the whole of 2017 (372.4mm).

Monthly Rainfall from November 2017 to Date:

Monthly Cumulative Rainfall 2017 & 2018:

2017 Rainfall was a total of 372.4 millimetres. This is based on internet weather records for the period to October 2017 for a nearby weather station and actual readings made on the reserve from November 2017.

Number of Days with Rainfall during 2017, 2018 and 2019:

href=https://www.worldweatheronline.com/"" title='Historical average weather' Some Data provided by WorldWeatherOnline.com

Windmill Pond 2018 08 28:

Windmill Pond: 2018 03 08. Windmill Pond is full again ! The pond is now at its maximum depth and is overflowing into the downstream river.

2018 03 07: Windmill Pond reaches maximum capacity and starts to overflow into the downstream river (on the left of picture).

Windmill Pond overflowing into the downstream river:

Downstream river outflow from Windmill Pond 2018 03 08.

Downstream river outflow from Windmill Pond 2018 03 08.

Source of the downstream river 2018 03 08.

River 2018 03 08.

River 2018 03 08.

West bank of Windmill Pond at its maximum height. 2018 03 07.

East bank of Windmill Pond at its maximum height. 2018 03 07.

Windmill Pond: 2018 03 05. After the River has flowed into the pond for several days. The pond is now near to overflowing into the downstream river.

Windmill Pond: 2018 03 04. After 73mm of Rain in previous five days.

River now flowing and running in to Windmill Pond - 2018 03 04.

Rainbow above Windmill Pond and Nest Bank.

River now running after period of rainfall (Spring in background) 2018 03 04.

Windmill Pond: 2018 01 15. After another 26mm of Rain since 6th January.

Windmill Pond: 2018 01 06. The morning after 28mm of rain the night before.

Windmill Pond: 2017 12 12. Some water standing in Windmill Pond following nearly 40 mm of rain in the week.

Windmill Pond: 2017 09 29. Windmill Pond totally dried up.

Windmill Pond: 2017 08. Size much reduced by evaporation in the hot summer weather. When full the pond is 100m and 40m at its widest and 3,000 sq m in extent (0.74 Acres).

Middle Section of Windmill Pond on 2018 01 15 starting to fill with water. This is the area between the main area of the pond and the Spring.

River starting to fill with water. 2018 01 15.

River with some standing water 2018 01 06.

Winterbourne, which is a stream that runs during winter rains, flowing 2018 03 04.

Winterbourne flowing 2018 03 10 - about to flow through culvert under road track.

Winterbourne flowing 2018 03 04 - about to flow through culvert under road track.

Winterbourne with small amount of flowing water 2018 01 06:

Winterbourne stream flowing water under culvert under track 2018 01 06:



Windmill Pond - without any water at the end of the mostly-dry Autumn: 8am, 5th December, -5 Celcius

Eurasian Collared Dove breaking ice to drink at Photo Hide Pond. -4 Celcius

We can now get personalised Weather Forecastgs for the Nature Reserve having set up a full Weather Station system linked to the Weather Underground website and apps.

Rainfall Gauges. We currently use two and average their readings:


Weather Pattern

The typical weather pattern for Baixo Alentejo is long hot nd dry Summers (up to mid 40s Celcius) with Autumn and Winter Rainfall and some cold temperatures in Winter down to -5 Celcius or a bit lower.


Links to detailed webpages:



Seasons 2019

Breeding Season 2019




Reptiles & Amphibians





Bulrush Pond

Windmill Pond

Hide Pond


Flower Meadows

Fungi Lichens

Conservation & Management

IUCN Red List

Colour Rings Tags

Nearby Wildlife

Fox Gallery

Bird Feeders


Catalonia Wildlife

Mashatu Botswana

Tswalu Kalahari



Mammal Maps Butterfly Maps Reptile & Amphibian Maps   Trail Cameras

Spring Watch

Barn Owls 2019





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