Portugal Wildlife

Guide to the Butterflies of a Wildlife Reserve in Baixo Alentejo

All Photographs were taken by the website author on the reserve unless otherwise stated.

Species Notes Photographs Photographs Photographs

Swallowtail

Papilio machaon

Cauda de andorinha

 

Scarce Swallowtail

Iphiclides podalirius feisthamelii

Borboleta Zebra
 

Male, showing greyish-white upperside ground colour (female shows faint yellow flush).

 

 

 

Spanish Festoon

Zerynthia rumina

Borboleta carnaval

 

Female - which has large orange spots along its abdomen.

Female on Brassica sp. flower.

 

 

 

 

 

Small White

Pieris rapae
 

Small White feeding on Sweet Scabious.

 

 

 

 

Small White feeding on Limestone Lettuce.

 

Bath White

Pontia daplidice
 

 

Western Dappled White

Euchloe crameri
 

Feeding on flower of a Brassica species.

 

 

Feeding on Wild Radish.

 

 

Green Striped White

Euchloe belemia
 

 

 

 

 

 

Clouded Yellow

Colias crocea

Maravilha

 

Clouded Yellow feeding on Common Heliotrope.

Male in flight - showing some of upper wing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

False Ilex Hairstreak

Satyrium esculi

Esculi

 

 

 

Green Hairstreak

Callophrys rubi

 

 

 

 

Small Copper

Lycaena phlaeas

Acobreada

 

Male - with very bright upper wings.

Female - with much darker upper wings.

 

 

Small Copper feeding on Dusky Dogfennel flower.

 

 

Male showing Hindwing 'Tail' nicely - this feature is less prominent in females.

Food plants of the Small Copper caterpillars: Rumex acetosa and R. acetosella

 

 

Small Copper (right) with two Southern Brown Argus butterflies (left)

 

 

 

Southern Brown Argus

Aricia cramera
 

Male.

Male.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Blue           

Polyommatus icarus

Azul comum
 

Male.

Male.

Male.

 

 

Male feeding on nectar from Common Heliotrope flowers.

Male.

 

 

Male.

Male.

Two males.

 

 

Male.

Two males.

Male.

Red Admiral

Vanessa atalanta

Almirante vermelho

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Painted Lady

Vanessa cardui

Bela Dama

 

Painted Lady feeding on Corn Marigold.

Thistles, such as this Purple Milk Thistle, are important nectar sources as well as larval host plants for Painted Lady butterflies.

 

 

A Painted Lady basking in the January sunshine.

 

 

 

 

Spanish Marbled White

Melanargia ines

 

Male Spanish Marbled White.

 

 

Male.

 

 

 

Tree Grayling

Neohipparchia statilinus

 

 

 

 

Meadow Brown

Maniola jurtina hispulla

Loba

 

Meadow Brown feeding on Sweet Scabious.

Upperwings of Male Meadow Brown.

 

 

Female Meadow Brown showing small part of Upperwing which is much brighter in colour than that of males.

 

Female.

 

 

Male.

 

Male.

 

Southern Gatekeeper

Pyronia cecilia
 

Male.

Female.

Female.

 

 

Male Southern Gatekeeper. The conspicuous patch of dark markings on the Upperwing are known as a sex brand which is a grouping of androconia. Androconia are specialized wing scales of male butterflies that possess gland cells containing chemicals that attract female butterflies. In this species the sex brand is broken by distinctive orange veins.

Male.

 

 

Male.

Female.

Female.

 

 

Female.

Female.

 

 

Female.

Female.

Male with scales well worn.

Small Heath

Coenonympha pamphilus

Nêspera
 

   

 

Red Underwing Skipper

Spialia sertorius

 

Red Underwing Skipper feeding on Sweet Scabious.

 

Small Skipper

Thymelicus sylvestris

Hesperídeo laranja antenas vermelhas
 

Small Skipper feeding on Sweet Scabious.

 

 

The orange colouration on the antennae is characteristic.

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Butterfly Species List :

English Name Scientific Name Portuguese Name Examples of Food Plants of Caterpillars (Not all yet recorded on the reserve)
1 Swallowtail Papilio machaon Cauda de andorinha Umbellifers (Apiaceae) - especially Fennel
2 Scarce Swallowtail Iphiclides podalirius feisthamelii Borboleta Zebra Almond (Prunus dulcis) and Pears (Pyrus spp.)
3 Spanish Festoon Zerynthia rumina Borboleta carnaval Aristolochias such as Andalusian Dutchman´s Pipe (Aristolochia baetica)
4 Small White Pieris rapae Lagarta da couve Brassicas, Weld (Reseda luteola)
5 Bath White Pontia daplidice Borboleta branca e verde Crucifers, Weld (Reseda luteola)
6 Western Dappled White Euchloe crameri   Brassicas
7 Green Striped White Euchloe belemia Branca de riscas verdes Crucifers, (Brassica & Diplotaxis spp.)
8 Clouded Yellow Colias crocea Maravilha Various (Fabaceae/Leguminosae) such as Trefoils (Lotus spp.)
9 False Ilex Hairstreak Satyrium esculi Esculi Oaks (Quercus spp.) including Sweet Oak (Quercus rotundifolia) our dominant tree species (previously thought of as Q.ilex)
10 Green Hairstreak Callophrys rubi Rubi Various Leguminosae such as species of Broom (Cytisus & Genista)
11 Small Copper Lycaena phlaeas Acobreada Sheep's Sorrel (Rumex acetosella) and other (Rumex spp.)
12 Southern Brown Argus Aricia cramera   Cranesbills (Geranium spp.) and Storksbills (Erodium spp.)
13 Common Blue Polyommatus icarus Azul comum Various (Fabaceae/Leguminosae) such as (Ononis, Trifolium, Lotus)
14 Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta Almirante vermelho Various Nettles (Urticaceae) - (Urtica & Parietaria spp.)
15 Painted Lady Vanessa cardui Bela Dama Various Thistles and Mallows (Asteraceae & Malvaceae) (e.g. Malva spp.)
16 Spanish Marbled White Melanargia ines   Various Grasses such as (Brachypodium spp.)
17 Tree Grayling Neohipparchia statilinus   Various Grasses such as (Bromus erectus)
18 Meadow Brown Maniola jurtina Loba Various Grasses including Carpet Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)
19 Southern Gatekeeper Pyronia cecilia   Grasses, possibly including Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa)
20 Small Heath Coenonympha pamphilus Nêspera Grasses including Matgrass (Nardus stricta)
21 Red Underwing Skipper Spialia sertorius   Various plants including Sanguisorba, Rubus and Potentilla.
22 Small Skipper Thymelicus sylvestris Hesperídeo laranja antenas vermelhas Various Grasses such as (Holcus spp.)

 

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